Facts and Information

Information taken from The Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States.

2016 CBTRUS Fact Sheet

Because brain tumors are located in the control center for thought, memory, emotion, sensation, and movement, their effects can be devastating. Read below to find out more about different types of brain tumors, statistics, and the importance of brain tumor research.

CBTRUS (Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States) incidence rates and estimated new cases include all primary malignant and non-malignant tumors of the brain, central nervous system (CNS), pituitary and pineal glands, and olfactory tumors of the nasal cavity (including brain lymphoma and leukemia).These data are obtained on all newly diagnosed primary brain and CNS tumors from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), National Program of Cancer Registries (NPCR) and the Nation Cancer Institute, Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) program for diagnosis years 2009-2013. The 51 population-based central cancer registries contributing to this report include 50 state cancer registries and the District of Columbia and represent approximately 100% of the US population.

  • Survival rates are estimated using the SEER Cancer Incidence Research Database, 1973-2013 and include all primary malignant tumors of the brain, CNS, pituitary and pineal glands, and olfactory tumors of the nasal cavity (including brain lymphoma and leukemia) in the US.
  • Worldwide incidence rates from the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) include primary malignant brain and other CNS (excluding brain lymphoma and leukemia, tumors of the pituitary and pineal glands, and olfactory tumors of the nasal cavity). These global rates are age-adjusted using the world standard population. These rates may be compared to other rates adjusted to the world standard population, but they cannot be compared to rates adjusted to other population standards, such as the 2000 United States standard population.
  • Incidence rates in the US provided by CBTRUS utilize the 2000 United States standard population and are reported per 100,000 population for 2009-2013.

Incidence Overall

  • The incidence rate of all primary malignant and non-malignant brain and other CNS tumors is 22.36 cases per 100,000 for a total count of 368,117 incident tumors; (7.18 per 100,000 for malignant tumors for a total count of 117,906 incident tumors and 15.18 per 100,000 for non-malignant tumors for a total count of 250,211 incident tumors). The rate is higher in females (24.46 per 100,000 for a total count of 213,301 incident tumors) than in males (20.10 per 100,000 for a total count of 154,816 incident tumors).a, 1
  • An estimated 79,270 new cases of primary malignant and non-malignant brain and other CNS tumors are expected to be diagnosed in the United States in 2017.This includes an estimated 26,070 primary malignant and 53,200 non-malignant that are expected to be diagnosed in the US in 2017.a, 1 
  • The worldwide incidence rate of primary malignant brain and other CNS tumors in 2012, age-adjusted using the world standard population, was 3.4 per 100,000. Incidence rates by gender were 3.9 per 100,000 in males and 3.0 per 100,000 in females. This represented an estimated 139,608 males and 116,605 females who were diagnosed worldwide with a primary malignant brain tumor in 2012, an overall total of 256,213 individuals.2 The incidence rates were higher in more developed countries (5.1 per 100,000) than in less developed countries (3.0 per 100,000).2

Pediatric Incidence (Ages 0-14 Years)

  • The incidence rate of childhood primary malignant and non-malignant brain and other CNS tumors in the US is 5.47 cases per 100,000 for a total count of 16,653 incident tumors. The rate is higher in males (5.69 per 100,000) than females (5.24 per 100,000).1
  • An estimated 4,830 new cases of childhood primary malignant and non-malignant brain and other CNS tumors are expected to be diagnosed in the US in 2017.1

Pediatric & Adolescent Incidence (Ages 0-19 Years)

  • The incidence rate of childhood and adolescent primary malignant and non-malignant brain and other CNS tumors in the US is 5.67 per 100,000 for a total count of 23,522 incident tumors. The rate is higher in females (5.71 per 100,000) than males (5.69 per 100,000).

Adolescent & Young Adult (AYA) Incidence (Ages 15-39 Years)

  • The incidence rate of AYA primary malignant and non-malignant brain and other CNS tumors is 10.71 cases per 100,000 for a total count of 54,388 incident tumors.The rate is higher for non-malignant tumors (7.47 per 100,000) than malignant tumors (3.24 per 100,000).1
  • An estimated 11,110 new cases of AYA primary malignant and non-malignant brain and other CNS tumors are expected to be diagnosed in the US in 2017.4

Mortality

  • The average annual mortality rate in the US between 2009 and 2013 was 4.32 per 100,000 with 73,450 deaths attributed to primary malignant brain and other CNS tumors.3
  • An estimated 16,947 deaths will be attributed to primary malignant brain and other CNS tumors in the US in 2017.a

Lifetime Risk

  • From birth, a person in the US has a 0.62% chance of ever being diagnosed with a primary malignant brain/other CNS tumor (excluding lymphomas, leukemias, tumors of pituitary and pineal glands, and olfactory tumors of the nasal cavity) and a 0.46% chance of dying from the primary malignant brain/other CNS tumor.4
  • For males in the US, the risk of developing a primary malignant brain/other CNS tumor is 0.69%, and the risk of dying from a primary malignant brain/other CNS tumor (excluding lymphomas, leukemias, tumors of pituitary and pineal glands, and olfactory tumors of the nasal cavity) is 0.51%.4
  • For females in the US, the risk of developing a primary malignant brain/other CNS tumor is 0.55%, and the risk of dying from a primary malignant brain/other CNS tumor (excluding lymphomas, leukemias, tumors of pituitary and pineal glands, and olfactory tumors of the nasal cavity) is 0.41%.4

Survival

  • The five–year relative survival rate in the US following diagnosis of a primary malignant brain and other CNS tumor (including lymphomas and leukemias, tumors of the pituitary and pineal glands, and olfactory tumors of the nasal cavity) is 34.7% (33.5% for males and 36.1% for females) (1995-2013 data).5
  • Survival after diagnosis with a primary malignant or non-malignant brain tumor in the US varies significantly by age, histology and behavior. Five-year relative survival rates following diagnosis of a primary malignant brain and other CNS tumor (including lymphoma, leukemia, tumors of the pituitary and pineal glands,  and olfactory tumors of the nasal cavity) by age of diagnosis (1995-2013 data): 5
    Age 0-19 years: 73.8% Age 55-64 years: 18.5%
    Age 20-44 years: 61.5% Age 65-74 years: 11.2%
    Age 45-54 years: 33.5% Age 75 or older: 6.3%
  • Survival after diagnosis with a non-malignant brain/other CNS tumor also varies. Five-year relative survival after diagnosis with a non-malignant brain/other CNS tumor is 90.4% in the US.5

Prevalence

  • The prevalence rate for all primary brain and other CNS tumors was estimated to be 221.8 per 100,000 (61.9 per 100,000 for malignant; 177.3 per 100,000 for non-malignant) in 2010. It was estimated that more than 688,096 persons were living with a diagnosis of primary brain and other central nervous system tumor in the United States in 2010 (malignant tumors: more than 138,054 persons; non-malignant tumors: more than 550,042 persons).6
  • The prevalence rate for all pediatric (ages 0-19) primary brain and other central nervous system tumors was estimated at 35.4 per 100,000 with more than 28,000 children estimated to be living with this diagnosis in the United States in 2004.6

Notes

a Estimated numbers of incidence of malignant and non-malignant brain and other CNS tumors and deaths due to these tumors were calculated for 2016 and 2017 using age-adjusted annual tumor incidence rates generated for 2000-2013 for non-malignant tumors by state, age, and histologic type.

b Mortality rates were generated for 2000-2013. Joinpoint 4.2.0 was used to fit regression models to these incidence rates which were used to predict numbers of cases in future years using the parameter from the selected models. Please see Reference 1 for additional information.

References

1 Ostrom QT, Gittleman H, Xu J et al. CBTRUS Statistical Report: Primary Brain and Central Nervous System Tumors Diagnosed in the United States in 2009-2013. Neuro Oncol. 2016;18(s5):iv1-iv76.

2 GLOBOCAN 2012 v1.0, Cancer Incidence and Mortality Worldwide: IARC CancerBase No. 11 [Internet]. International Agency for Research on Cancer; 2013. http://globocan.iarc.fr. Accessed 2/19/2014.

3 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Health Statistics.  Underlying Cause of Death 1999-2014 on CDC Wonder Online Database, released 2016. Data are from the Multiple Cause of Death Files, 1999-2014, as compiled from data provided by the 57 vital statistics jurisdictions through the Vital Statistics Cooperative Program. http://wonder.cdc.gov/ucd-icd10.html.

4 Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Program. DevCan database: “SEER 18 Incidence and Mortality, 2000-2013, with Kaposi Sarcoma and Mesothelioma”. National Cancer Institute, DCCPS, Surveillance Research Program, Surveillance Systems Branch, released September 2015, based on the November 2014 submission. Underlying mortality data provided by NCHS (www.cdc.gov/nchs).

5 Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Program. SEER*Stat Database: Incidence—SEER 18 Regs Research Data + Hurricane Katrina Impacted Louisiana Cases, Nov 2015 Sub (1973-2013 varying)—Linked To County Attributes—Total U.S., 1969-2014 Counties, National Cancer Institute, DCCPS, Surveillance Research Program, Surveillance Systems Branch, released April 2016, based on the November 2015 submission.

6 Porter KR, McCarthy BJ, Freels S, Kim Y, Davis FG. Prevalence estimates for primary brain tumors in the United States by age, gender, behavior, and histology. Neuro Oncol. 2010;12(6):520-527.